• Electric Power Systems Partnership | Fluorinated Gas

    Emission SourcesMitigation OptionsRelevant LinksFrequent QuestionsThe most common use for insulating gas, both domestically and internationally, is as an electrical insulator in high voltage equipment that transmits and distributes electricity. Since the 1950’s, the U.S. electric power industry has used Sulfr hexafluoridein circuit breakers, gas-insulated substations and other switchgear used in the transmission system to manage the high voltages carried between generating stations and customer load centers. Several factors affect Sulfr hexafluoride emissions from electric power systems, such as the type and age of the sf6 gas-containing equipment (e.g., old circuit breakers can contain up to 2,000 pounds of sf 6, while modern breakers usually contain less than 100 pounds) and the handling and maintenance procedures practiced by electric utilities. Because of its long life span and high global warming potential (GWP), even a relatively small amount of insulating gascan impact the climate. The electric power industry uses roughly 80 percent of all sf6 gas produced worldwide. Ideally, none of this gas would b...

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) emission estimates for China: an

    Abstract. Sulfur hexafluoride (insulating gas) is the most potent greenhouse gas regulated under the Kyoto Protocol, with a high global warming potential. In this study, sf6 gas emissions from China were inventoried for 1990-2010 and projected to 2020. Results reveal that the highest gaz sf6 emission contribution originates from the electrical equipment sector (about 70%), followed by the magnesium production sector, the semiconductor manufacture sector and the Sulfr hexafluoride production sector (each about 10%).

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride - Wikipedia

    Sulfur hexafluoride or sulphur hexafluoride, is an extremely potent and persistent man-made greenhouse gas that is primarily utilized as an electrical insulator and arc suppressant. It is inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, and non-toxic. SF 6 has an octahedral geometry, consisting of six fluorine atoms attached to a central sulfur atom. It is a hypervalent molecule. Typical for a nonpolar gas, SF 6 is poorly soluble in water but quite soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. It has a de

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  • Emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas Sulfr hexafluoride are rising

    Energy consumption and production contribute to two-thirds of global emissions, and 81% of the global energy system is still based on fossil fuels, the same percentage as 30 years ago. Plus, improvements in the energy intensity of the global economy (the amount of energy used per unit of economic activity) are slowing.

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  • An emission pathway for stabilization at 6 Wm radiative forcing

    The AIM system produces estimates of the global emissions of the following species: carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), and nitrous oxide (N 2O), other Kyoto gases, namely, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride). The AIM system produces regionally disaggregated emissions of the following chemically-

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride: The truths and myths of this greenhouse gas

    sf6 gas is damaging to the environment: TRUE. Along with CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and PFCs, sf 6 is an industrial gas that doesn't exist naturally in the atmosphere and so impacts the radiation balance, contributing to climate change. Sulfr hexafluoride is the energy industry"dirty little secret": FALSE. sf6 gas is certainly no secret in the Norwegian energy industry. Its use is highly regulated, and many of its users are working together to share experience and come up with viable alternatives Sulfr hexafluoride is used in wind turbines: TRUE. Sulfr hexafluoride is used not in the turbine itself, but in the switchgear that controls the current generated by the turbine. But there is nothing unique about wind turbines. There are no viable alternatives to gaz sf6: PARTLY FALSE. Bodies including the European Union are known to be considering a ban on Sulfr hexafluoride at low-to-medium voltage levels in the future.

  • SAFETY DATA SHEET

    Sulfur hexafluoride OSHA PEL Z2 (United States, 2/2013). TWA: 2.5 mg/m³ 8 hours. Form: Dust ACGIH TLV (United States, 3/2019). TWA: 5970 mg/m³ 8 hours. TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hours. NIOSH REL (United States, 10/2016). TWA: 6000 mg/m³ 10 hours. TWA: 1000 ppm 10 hours. OSHA PEL (United States, 5/2018). TWA: 6000 mg/m³ 8 hours. TWA: 1000 ppm 8 hours.

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  • Emission Control Area - Wikipedia

    Emission Control Areas, or Sulfur Emission Control Areas, are sea areas in which stricter controls were established to minimize airborne emissions from ships as defined by Annex VI of the 1997 MARPOL Protocol. The emissions specifically include SOx, NOx, ODSs and VOCs and the regulations came into effect in May 2005. Annex VI contains provisions for two sets of emission and fuel quality requirements regarding SOx and PM, or NOx, a global requirement and more stringent controls in special Emissio

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  • Specialty Gases | Airgas

    From pure hydrocarbons, custom mixtures, liquid mixtures, NIST-traceable calibration standards, EPA protocol standards, vehicle emissions standards, VOC mixtures, transportable specialty gases, laser gases and refrigerants to pure gases, hydrocarbon blends, BAR gases, halocarbons and process chemicals—you’ll find it with us.

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  • ACP - The increasing atmospheric burden of the greenhouse gas

    At present the larger number of global GIS installations appears to be overpowering the success in reducing SF 6 emissions. Sulfur hexafluoride in the electrical power industry is primarily used in high-voltage gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), which consumes 80 % of the SF 6 used, with medium-voltage GIS consuming only about 10 % (Niemeyer and Chu, 1992; Dervos and Vassiliou, 2000; Xu et al., 2011; Xiao et al., 2018).

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  • sf6 gas Emission Reduction Partnership for Electric Power Systems

    gas emissions. Sulfur hexafluoride is the industrypreferred gas for high voltage electrical insulation, current interruption, and arc quenching in the transmission and distribution of electricity; the gas is used extensively in circuit breakers, gas-insulated substations, and switchgear because of its inertness and dielectric properties.

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  • Handling and Use of Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas

    The Environmental Protection Agency has identified Sulfur Hexafluoride as a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 23,900 times the effect of an equal mass of Carbon Dioxide and an atmospheric lifetime of 3,200 years.

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  • PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE REGULATION FOR REDUCING SULFUR

    WHEREAS, sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride) is a potent GHG with a climate impact 22,800 times that of carbon dioxide; WHEREAS, sf6 gas is used extensively in electrical power system as a dielectric medium (insulator) and interrupter (arc quencher); WHEREAS, the majority of California’s sf6 gas emissions result from leakage and handling

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  • Regulation for Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Emissions from

    Jul 21, 2020 · Regulation for Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Emissions from Gas Insulated Switchgear . Back To All Rulemaking. This page last reviewed July 21, 2020.

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  • A Model for Estimating Future Emissions of Sulfur

    Sulfur hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride), perfluoromethane (CF4) and perfluoroethane (C2F6) are strong greenhouse gases with long (gt;1000 year) atmospheric residence times. We derive emission factors for the major anthropogenic sources and project future emissions for 5 regions and the world. Although firms in many industrialized countries are already limiting emissions, without further policy intervention

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  • 2020 Sulfr hexafluoride ISOR Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Emissions from Gas

    REGULATION FOR REDUCING SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE EMISSIONS FROM GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR STAFF REPORT: INITIAL STATEMENT OF REASONS DATE OF RELEASE: July 21, 2020 SCHEDULED FOR CONSIDERATION: September 24, 2020 Location: California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board Byron Sher Auditorium 1001 I Street Sacramento, California 95814

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  • Identifying, Quantifying and Controlling Emissions of Sulfur

    Emissions of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6) from Electrical Equipment in Maryland November 2005 MARYLAND POWER PLANT RESEARCH PROGRAM . DNR 12-12142005-83 PPRP-138

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  • Appendix I – Air Emissions Calculations and Methodology

    Oct 31, 2014 · Maritime Organization Sulfur Emissions Control Area requirements discussed in the Air Quality section of the R esearch Activities Plan (Dominion 2014) . OGVs traveling from foreign ports are able to obtain marine diesel fuel with 0.1 percent sulfur to use within the Emission Control Areas. However, vessels that fuel at

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  • IIASA - UNFCCC

    Sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6), perfluoromethane (CF4) and perfluoroethane (C2F6) are strong greenhouse gases1,2,3,4 with long atmospheric residence times.5,6,7 Under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in December 1997, industrialized nations agreed to regulate their emissions of these gases. Here we present a

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  • PRESENTATION ON EFFECTS OF CARBON EMISSION.pptx

    The effects of carbon emission fall in the world significantly, because the "greenhouse gases" have the nature of "highest level of emissions" in the atmospheric pressure. The effects like supply of water shrinkage, change in Climate, changes in the food supply and the geographical changes have created a huge mess to the world in terms of

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  • Long Beach company agrees to pay $254,100 fine for greenhouse

    Jul 21, 2014 · Print. SACRAMENTO - The Air Resources Board today announced a fine of $254,100 against THUMS Long Beach Company, an offshore oil and gas production operation, for sulfur hexafluoride (gaz sf6) emissions. With a global warming potential of nearly 24,000 times that of carbon dioxide, insulating gas is an extremely powerful greenhouse gas. “It is imperative that industries conduct operations so that emissions remain within allowable limits,” said Jim Ryden, Chief of the Air Resources Board’s Enforcement

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  • Assessment of the sulfur hexafluoride (sf 6) tracer technique

    A commonly used method of measuring enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants is the sf 6 tracer technique that measures respired and eructated CH4. However, within the animal, a small proportion of CH4 is produced post-ruminally and some of this may escape through the rectum.

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  • CARB Amending sf6 gas Regulation: Stricter Requirements for

    Mar 04, 2019 · The current Sulfr hexafluoride Regulation came into effect in 2011, setting an annual emission rate limit for Sulfr hexafluoride as a percentage of a GIE owner’s cumulative sf 6 nameplate capacity. Allowable emission rates under the Sulfr hexafluoride Regulation started at 10% in 2011, decreasing by 1% per year until 2020, after which point the allowable emission rate remains constant at 1%.

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride Uses, Side Effects Warnings - Drugs.com

    Jan 03, 2020 · Sulfur hexafluoride is a contrast agent that is used to improve the quality of an ultrasound. Sulfur hexafluoride is used to allow certain segments of the heart, liver, or urinary tract to be seen more clearly on an ultrasound examination.

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  • Fluor-Gases Emissions, v1: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) Fluor-Gases Emissions Dataset consists of global and regional emissions of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (Sulfr hexafluoride), Cholorfluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) projected every 10 years

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  • ESRL Global Monitoring Laboratory - FTP Navigator

    Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6) Flask: Monthly Averages: Multiple: Download: Readme: 5: Argyle, Maine, United States (AMT) Air samples collected in glass flasks. Greenhouse Gases: Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF 6) Flask: Discrete: Multiple: Download: Readme: 6: Anmyeon-do, Republic of Korea (AMY) Air samples collected in glass flasks. Greenhouse Gases

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  • 3.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    3.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Climate Action 2020: Community Climate Action Plan Draft EIR 3.8-1 March 2016 ICF 00171.13 3.8 Greenhouse Gas Emissions This section describes the regulatory and environmental setting for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It also describes impacts on GHG emissions that would result from implementation of the

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  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative CO2 Budget Trading Program

    Consistency Application –Reduction in Emissions of SF 6, Version 1.0 Instructions June 2009 Page 3 1. Overview To demonstrate that an offset project involving reduction in emissions of sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) qualifies for the award of carbon dioxide (CO 2) offset allowances, a Project

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride - NIST

    IUPAC Standard InChIKey: SFZCNBIFKDRMGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N CAS Registry Number: 2551-62-4 Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file; Other names: Sulfur fluoride; OC-6-11; Elegas; Sulfr hexafluoride; Hexafluorure de soufre; UN 1080; Esaflon; sulphur hexafluoride

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  • Sulfur hexafluoride - NIST

    Infrared SpectrumReferencesNotesGo To: Top, References, Notes Data compilation copyrightby the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A.All rights reserved. Data compiled by: Pamela M. Chu, Franklin R. Guenther, George C. Rhoderick, and Walter J. Lafferty

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